The 4 Freedoms Library

It takes a nation to protect the nation

Prepared by Mary, 2008

{If you want, you can get your name in Arabic script here:
http://www.notrefamille.com/v2/services-prenom/prenom-arabe-intro.asp }

A
Abd* A prefix used in many Muslim male names in conjunction with a divine attribute of Allah, meaning “servant”.
i.e. Abd-Allah – Servant of Allah
Abd al-Rahman –Servant of the Most Merciful
Abd al-Kaliq – Servant of the Creator

Abu Father of (usually of eldest son).

Adhan* The Muslim call to prayer consisting of specific phrases, recited aloud in Arabic prior to each of the five daily worship times.

Ahl al-kitab* “People of the book”

al the (the definite article)

Al Family or clan

Alim* (Singular) One who has knowledge. This term refers commonly to a religious scholar,
Uama* (Plural)

Allah God – Islamic God

Allah Akbar* Allah is most great. This phrase is known as the Takhir. This is used to express suprise, regret, thankfulness, fear, or approval, thereby reinforcing Muslim belief that all things come from God.

Amanu Those who keep the faith.

Aqsa (al-)* Name of the holy site located in the city of Jerusalem and referred to in the Qur’an as “the farthest Masjid.” The site is believed to be the area from which Prophet Muhammad was miraculously ascended to Heaven in 619 C.E.

Arabic* The language of the Qur’an. Arabic is a Semitic language, used throughout the world by Muslims and non-Muslims, Arabs and non-Arabs. Historically, in Muslim civilization Arabic became the language of learning and scholarship, and was the common language for people living as far apart as Spain and China.

As-Salaam Alaykum* the traditional, time-honored greeting of Muslims, meaning “Peace be upon you.” The appropriate response is “Wa Alaykm As-Salaam,” meaning, “ and upon you be peace also”.

Ayah* “miracle” or “sign”. The term is used to designate a verse in the Quran. There are over 6,600 ayahs in the Qur’an.

Ayatollah A high ranking religious leader among SHIA Muslims.


B
Basmalah* Name for the Arabic formula pronounced by Muslims at various reasons. The formula “Bismillah ar-Rahman ar-Raheem”, means “in the Name of God, the Gracious, the Merciful” and is said before any act of activity of importance, such as travelling, eating a meal, rising from sleep, etc.

bin Son of
bint Daughter of

Black Muslims* A term designating African-Americans who adhere to the teachings of the organization known as the Nation of Islam. So-called “Black Muslims” are not to be confused with Muslims (followers of universal Islam) of African-American or African origin. Likewise, the Nation of Islam, a nationalistic organization, is not to be confused with the mainstream, universal world religion Islam.

Buraq* A winged creature, unknown to earth, which transported Prophet Muhammad from Makkah to Jerusalem and thence to Heaven during his miraculous Night Journey and Ascension in 619 C.E.

Burqa The required garment for women in Afghanistan, which consists of a robe that
conceals the head, face, and body, with a small piece of netting over the eyes.


C
Chador The covering worn by women in Iran, consisting of a dark cloth that covers the head and body and conceals the figure.


D
Dar al-Harb House of War – the entire non-Muslim World

Dar al-Islam House of Islam

Dawa “Call” signifies an invitation to join the faith of Islam or the spreading of the message of Islam.

Day of Judgment* Belief in the Day of Judgment is a basic article of faith in Islam. After Allah ends the present world and order of creation, a day will follow on which he will judge every person according to his or her intentions, deeds, and circumstances. Judgment by God is followed by punishment in Hell or eternal reward in paradise.
Deen* A term commonly used to mean “religion”, but actually referring to the totality of Muslim beliefs and practices. Thus, Islam as a deen is a “complete way of life”

Dhikr Remembrance and reminder.

Dhimmi A person belonging to the category of “protected people” “ahl ad-dhimmah”
Similar to Jews in pre WWII Germany. Must pay special tax.

Dhul-Hajjah* Islamic lunar calendar.

Dome of the Rock* Name of the famous masjid in Jerusalem built around 691 C.E. b the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik. The rock within the masjid structure is believed to be the point from which Muhammad was miraculously ascended to Heaven in 619 C.E.

Du’a* Personal prayer, supplication, and communication with Allah, as distinct from salah (formal worship). Du’as can be made in any language, whereas salah is performed in Arabic.


E
Eid* “Festivity” or “Celebration”.
Eid al-Fitr – after Ramadan
Eid aladha – at the time of Hajj.
Greeting during Eid “Eid Mubarak” (May your holiday be blessed.”
Emir (or amir) Commander, prince, or tribal chief


F
Fard* Required or obligatory belief or practice in Islam.

(al-) Fatihah* “The Opening” chapter of the Qur’an and is recited during the daily formal worship, comprised of seven short verses and summarizes the essential beliefs of Muslims and the obligation of human beings to seek guidance and aid from Allah alone.

Fatwa* Singular –formal legal opinion on Islamic Law
Fatwin Plural

Fiqh* Islamic jurisprudence – “understanding” Refers to the body of knowledge and legal opinions developed by Muslim jurists and scholars from the primary sources in Islam, the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet. Fiqh is essentially the interpretation and application of Shari’ah to specific circumstances or issues.

Fitna “sedition” or “rebellion” Refers to a Muslim civil war.

Fitrah* An Arabic term designating the innate, original spiritural orientation of every human being towards God he Creator. Muslims believe that God endowed everything in creation with a tendency towards goodness, piety and God – consciousness, and that one’s environment, upbringing, and circumstances serve to enhance or obscure this tendency.

Five Pillars of Islam* The term referring to the five core religious practices incumbent upon all Muslims and which demonstrates a Muslim’s commitment to God in Word and in deed. They are as follows: Ahadadah (declaration of Faith), Salah (formal worship), Zakah (mandatory alms-giving tax), Sawm (fasting during Ramadan), and Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah).


G
(al-) Ghayb* An Arabic term referring to the unseen world, belief in which is a basic article of faith. Angels, jinn and other creations of God inhabit this realm. For Muslims, recognition of al-Ghayb demonstrates acknowldgement that human knowledte is limited and that ony God is the All-knowing and All-Powerful.


H
Hadith* Tradition or sayings attributed to the prophet Muhammad in the writings of his contemporaries and referred to for authoritative precedent in interpreting the Qur’an. The Hadith forms part of the record of the Sunnah (way of life and example). The Hadith record the words and deeds, explanations, and interpretations of the Prophet concerning all aspects of life. Hadith are found in various collectons compliked by Muslim scholars in the early centureies of the Muslim civilization, Six such collections are considered most authentic.

Hafiz* One who has memorized the entirely of the Qur’an.

Hajar* One of Abraham’s wives who, along with her infant son Isma’il, was settled in Arabia by Abraham. She may be considered the founder of the city of Makkah, since it was a desolate valley prior to her arrival and discovery of the sacred well known as ZamZam.

Hajj The pilgrimage (journey) to Makkah that is one of the PILLARS of Islam.
Commemorates the Abrahamic roots of Islam. The hajj rites symbolically reenact the trials and sacrifices of Prophet Abraham, his wife Hajar, and their son Isma’il over 4,000 years ago.

Halal* Arabic term designating that which is deemed lawful in Islam, based on the two authoritative sources, the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet.

Hamas Islamic Resistance Movement. Founded 1987 in the Gaza Strip by former leaders of the Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood (Ikhwan); Hamas is designated by the U.S. State Dept. as an international terrorist organization.

Haram* Arabic term designating that which is deemed unlawful or forbidden in Islam, based on the Qur’an and Sunnah.

Hawwa Eve, the wife of Adam.

Hijrah/Hegira* The migration in 622 C.E. of the Prophet and members of the Muslim community fro the city of Makkah to the city of Yathrib, later renamed Madinah an-Nabi (city of the prophet) in honor of Muhammad. The Islamic lunar calendar (the hijri, is dated from this event), which has been implemented in Shari’ah.

Hijab A veil that fully covers the hair, or more broadly, the modest dress that is required of Muslim women by the Shar’iah.

Hira* The cave on the outskirts of Makkah where the prophet at the age of forty, received the first revelations of the Qur’an, beginning with the word “iqra” which means “read”. The cave was a favorite place of retreat for Muhammad prior to his call to prophethood.

Hizballah “Party of God”. Formed in late 1982 is a pro-Iranian Lebanese Shiite militia with offshoots in the Arabian Peninsula, it is designated by the U.S. State Dept. as an international terrorist organization.

Huddud “Limits”, the limits of acceptable behavior, the specific punishments designed under Shar’iah for specific crimes, such as intoxication, theft, adultery, and apostasy (disavowing the faith).


I
Ibadah* “worship” All acts demonstrate obedience and commitment o God.

Iblis* The personal name of Satan, or the devil. A prominent member of the jinn. An avowed enemy of humankind.

ibn (singular) son of
abna (plural) sons of

Ibrahim Abrabam, a prophet and righteous person revered by Muslims, Jews, and Christians, as the patriarch of monotheism. Abraham’s devotion, struggles, and sacrifices during the annual hajj rites are commemorated.

Ihram* State of Cconsecration into which Muslims enter in order to perform the hajj or umrah (lesser pilgrimage). The term also refers to the specific dress, made of white, unstitched, seamless cloth, donned by pilgrims while in this state. During the hajj, the ihram worn by pilgrims serves to reinforce a sense of humility and purity, and human equality in the eyes of God.

Ijma* Consensus of opinion among the community of the ulama.

Ijtibad* Independent judgment on religious matters or principles of Islamic jurisprudence
that is not specifically outlined in the Qur’an.

Ilm* Arabic term meaning “knowledge”. The Qur’an and Hadith encourage Muslims to constantly strive to increase their knowledge of both religious and worldly matters.

Imam* Religious or political leader particularly among SHIA. They are not ordained clergy, nor do they belong to any kind of hierarchy. Also, Imams do not act as intermediaries between individual worshippers and God. The term as specific authoritative connotations for Shi’ah Muslims.

Iman Arabic term meaning “Faith” and the articles of faith as well as actual demonstration of belief in practice and behavior.

Injeel* Arabic name for the holy scripture revealed to Prohphet Jesus. The Injeel is roughly analogous to the Evangelium of Christian it and refers to a divine book provided to Jesus by God, as distant from the Christian Gospels, which are viewed as records of Jesus’ life written by his closest contemporaries.

Insan Humankind, Human Being Person, Someone, gender non specific, mankind.

Intifada “shaking off”. The intifada was a Palestinian uprising in December 1987; a second intifada erupted in September 2000.

Iqra* Arabic “to read” or “recite”, it wa sw the first word of the Qur’an revealed to Muhammad during one of his cave retreats.

Isa* Jesus

Isma’il* the elder son of Abraham, born to wife, Hajar. When he was 13 years old help Abraham build the Ka’bah.

Islam Arabic term “Submission to God” and to God’s message revealed to Muhammad.

Isra Night Journey (of Muhammad)


J
Janhannam* Qur’anic term in reference to Hell, described as a place of torment, sorrow, and remorse. Allah does not want to send anyone to hell, yet justice demands that righteous people be rewarded and those who insist on evil without repentance and denial of Allah be punished.

Jahilia The age of ignorance or darkness inpre-Islamic Arabia, before the Prophet Muhammad spread Islam in the seventh century. Some may use this term to describe aspects of modern living as well.

Janazah* Muslim funeral prayer, performed as a sign of respect and goodwill for a deceased Muslim.

Jannah* Qur’anic term in reference to Heaven. A reward of the righteous Muslim. Often described as a blissful garden.

Jibrell* The angel Gabriel, the most important angel who was responsible for transmitting Allah’s divine revelations to all of the human prophets ending with Muhammad. Gabriel is referred to in the Qur’an as a ruh (Spirit) from Allah.

Jihad* Arabic term, which derives from the three-letter root j-h-d, and means “to exert oneself” or “to “strive”. Other meanings include endeavor, strain, effort, diligence, struggle. Usually understood in terms of personal betterment, jihad may also mean fighting to defend one’s (or another Muslim’s) life, property and faith. Jihad is a highly nuanced concept, it should not be understood to mean “holy war”, a common misrepresentation.

Jinni Genies (semi-spirit beings), singular
Jinn Genies, plural

Jum’ah* The congregational worship performed on Fridays in place of midday worship.


K

Ka’bah* An empty cube-shaped structure located in the city of Makkah (Saudi Arabid). Built by Prophet Abraham and his son Isha’il. Muslims believe this is the first building dedicated to the worship of the One God. It is made of stone and is covered by a black and gold cloth embroidered with verses from the Qur’an.
Khadijah The first wife of Muhammad and during her lifetime, the only wife. Khadijah was a successful businesswoman in Makkah who employed Muhammad as a merchant/trader. Married for 25 years until her death at the age of 65 in 610 C.E. They had two sons, both died in infancy, and four daughters together.

Kafir Unbeliever, infidel. The term implies one who knowingly hides the truth.
Kafirun Unbelievers

Kalam Islamic doctrinal theology.

Karim Generous Hero
Abd al-Karim Servant of the Generous

Khalifah (Caliph) “successor” to Muhammad, the vice regent or political leaders of a Muslim State.

Khutbah* Community address of Friday Jum’ah. Given immediately prior to the Jum’ah midday worship service. The address serves as a venue for leaders to share with members of the congregation religious insights, to discuss Islamic viewpoints on important contemporary issues, and to reinforce teachings of Islam. Given by an imam.

Kufr “blasphemy” The state of being a Kafir.


L

Laylat al-Qadr* “Night of Power”. This term is used in reference to the night in Ramadan, 610 C.E. on which Muhammad received the first revelation of the Qur’an, during his time in the cave.

Lunar Calendar* The hijrah of Muhammad from Makkah to Madinah in 622 C.E. marks the starting point of the Muslim calendar, comprised of 12 lunar months (a lunar year is roughly eleven days shorter than a solar year since each lunar month begins when the new moon’s crescent becomes visible every 20 or 30 days).


M

Madhhab* Arabic term used in reference to a particular “school of thought” in Islam. As Islam spread to new regions outside the Arabian peninsula and new social, economic and religious issues arose, many scholars studied the sources of Islam to find permissible and practical solutions that believers could employ to address these issues. Over time, the teachings and thoughts of five respected scholars gained prominence, and Muslims tend to adhere to the “school of thought” of one or another of these scholars. Each school’s opinions, while differing to some degree with the others, are considered equally valid as a source of practical guidance for the “lay” Muslim.

Madrasa A traditional school for the study of Islam.

Madinah (Medina) Formerly named Yathrib, Madinah became the center of the first Islamic community and political state after Prophet Muhammad migrated there from Makkah in 622 C.E. Muhammad died in Madinah in 632 C.E. and was buried in his room adjacent to the city’s central masjid, which he established.

Makkah (Mecca) An ancient city where Abraham and Isma’il built the Ka’bah. Muhammad, a member of the Quraysh tribe, which traced it’s lineage back to Abraham, was born to Makkah in 570 C.E. After migrating to Madinah to further the message of Islam.

Mala’ikah Angels

Manarah A tower-like structure, more commonly called a “minaret” , from which the Mueddhim (caller to worship) calls out the adhan (call to prayer), five times a day. The manarah is usually located adjacent to the masjid (mosque) though for architectural reasons they may be placed at various places on the masjid grounds for practical as well as decorative effect.

Maryam Mother of Jesus

Masjid* A term meaning “place of prostration”

Mir’aj Ascension (to heaven of Muhammad)

Masjid Mosque

Mueddhin Callers to prayer, one who makes the adhan. Also reciters of the Qur’an while worshippers assemble at the masjid and perform the wudu (ritual washing) a few minutes prior to commencement of congregational worship

Mufti A legal functionary who gives opinions on Islamic law. The grand mufti is the highest religious authority. The word mufti is derived from the same root as fatwa.

Muhammad* The prophet and righteous person believed by Muslims to be the final messenger of Allah, whose prececessors are believed to include Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, Jesus and others. Born in 570 C.E., Muhammad grew up to become a well-respected member of Makkan society. In 610 C.E. he received the first of many revelations that would eventually form the content of the Qur’an. Soon after this initial event, he was conferred prophethood and began calling people to righteouness and belief in One God. Muhammad died in 632, C.E. after successfully reestablishing the religion known as Islam and providing Muslims with a model for ideal human behavior.

Mujahedeen Plural – Persons who wages jihad – combatant’s behalf of a jihad.
Mujahed Singular- Person who wages jihad

Mujtabid A person who exercises ijtijad (Independent judgment on religious matters or principles of Islamic jurisprudence that is not specifically outlined in the Qur’an).

Mullah “Master” The title mullah is used by religious leaders in Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asia.

Al-mukaddhibun Deniers

Murtadd “Apostate” A murtadd is one who converts from Islam to another religion. According to a 2002 report on Saudi Arabia issued by the U.S. State Dept., under Islamic law “apostasy is a crime punishable by death if the accused does not recant.”

Musa* Moses of the Hebrew bible.

Mushrikun Polytheists: sometimes translated as idolaters

Muslim* A person who submits to God by following Islam. The word “muhammadan” is a perjorative and offensive misnomer, as it violates Muslim’s most basic understanding of their creed – Muslims do not worship Muhammad, nor do they view him as the founder of the religion. The word “Moslem” is also incorrect, since it is a corruption of the world “Muslim”.


N

Nafs The soul or spirit.

Nation of Islam* An organization formed in the United States in the 1930s by Elijah Poole (later known as Elijah Muhammad), which gained prominence during the nascent civil rights movement in the 1950s. In its efforts to uplift and provide self-worth to African-Americans, the nationalist organization espoused a doctrine of black superiority, and posited that God manifested Himself as a human being by the name of W.D. Fard, Elijah Muhammad’s instructor. Such doctrines and teachings of the Nation are incompatible with the universal outlook and absolute monotheism of Islam.. Unfortunately, much confusion has resulted and continues to exist due to this group’s appropriation of certain Arabic terms, values, and ideas from mainstream Islam. Followers of the Nation, often incorrectly called “Black Muslims” number less than 10,000 today. Many thousands of former members entered the fold of universal Islam after the death of Elijah Muhammad n 1975 under the leadership of his son Warith Deen Muhammad.

Niqab Garments worn by Muslim women that include a face covering and gloves.


P

Pan-Arabism A movement seeking to unite the Arab nations of the Middle East and North Africa.

Purdah A Persian word denoting the modest dress of women and the separation of women from men.


Q

Qari* “a reciter” A class of Muslim religious leaders who, due to vocal beauty and skill, publicly recite verses from the Qur’an.

Qiblah* Term used in reference to the direction Muslims face during salah, the formal worship.

Qiyas* Using analogies for the purpose of applying laws derived from the Qur’an and Sunnah to situations not explicitly covered by these two sources. The most important tool for interpreting and implementing the Shari’ah.

Qur’an* “the recitation”, the text of Muhammad’s revelations and prophecies, the Holy Book of the Islamic faith. It consists of 114 surahs (chapters) revealed by God to Muhammad over a period of twenty-three years. The Qur’an continues to be recited by Muslims throughout the world in the language of its revelation, Arabic, exactly as it was recited by Prophet Muhammad nearly fourteen hundred years ago. The Qur’an is viewed as the authoritative guide for human beings, along with the Sunnah of Muhammad. Translations of the Qur’an are considered explanations of the meaning of the Qur’an, but not the Qur’an itself. The spelling “Koran” is phonetically incorrect; the more accurate Qur’an should be used.

Al-Sarwa al-Islamia “The Islamic Awakening”, the term sometimes used to refer to the political Islam phenomenon.

(al-) Quds “The Holy”, this is the name Muslims use for Jerusalem, the third holiest city in Islam following Makkah and Madinah.

Quraysh* A tribe in Arabia to which Muhammad belonged. Most of the Quraysh disavowed him and attempted to thwart his efforts


R

Rak’ah* “a bowing” This term designates one complete cycle of standing, bowing, and prostrating during salah (formal worship). Verses from the Qur’an, special prayers and phrases, are stated in these different positions. Each of the five formal worship times are comprised of varying numbers of such cycles: The morning worship is comprised of 2 rak’ahs, the evening worship 3 rak’ahs, and the other worship times 4 rak’ahs.

Ramadan* The ninth month of the Islamic lunar calendar. Ramadan is important because it is the month in which the first verses of the Qur’an were revealed to Muhammad. Thus, it is considered a blessed and holy month. Furthermore, Ramadan is the month in which, Muslims fast daily from dawn to sunset to develop piety and self-restraint.

Ruh “Spirit”


S

Al-Sarwa al-Islamia “The Islamic Awakening”, the term sometimes used to refer to the political Islam phenomenon.
Sabr Patience

Sadaqah* “righteousness”. This term refers to the voluntary giving of alms (charity). Sadaqah is distinct from zakah, which is a mandatory contribution paid yearly and calculated based on one’s weath or assets. Sadaqah can consist of any item of value, and can be provided to any needy person. The Qur’an states that Allah loves those who are charitable and promises great reward and forgiveness for those who give regularly to others in need.

(as-) Sahih* The name applied to two important collections of Hadith, one (Sahih Bukhari) by Muhammad ibn Isma’il al-Bukhari (d.870 C.E.) and the other (Sahih Muslim) by Abu al-Husayn Muslim (d.73C.E.). Both collections are considered highly authoritative, due to the collectors’ scrupulous methods for verifying the authenticity of the Hadith contained in them.

Sahur* A light meal taken by Muslims before dawn prior to beinning the daily fat of Ramadan. Arising for this meal is an emulation of Prophet Muhammad, since it was his practice to do so, and thus is part of his Sunnah.

Salafi A follower of the Prophet Muhammad’s immediate successors (al-salaf al-salihin) Salfi movements have sought to restore Islam on the basis of its seventh century teachings – that is Islam as it was under the Prophet Muhammad and his immediate succors. Salafis usually belong to one of several groups, most notably the Muslim Brotherhood (Ikhwan) and the Wahhabis (al-Muwahhidun or Abl al-Taubid)

Salah Ritual Prayer, performed in Arabic only.

Salihat Just deeds (Makkan Suras)

Sahabah companions (of the prophet)

Sawm* The daily fast Muslims undertake during the month of Ramadan, and is one of the “five pillars” of Islam. For Muslims, fasting means total abstinence from all food, drink, and martial sexual relations from dawn to sunset. Muslims fast for many reasons, including to build a sense of will power against temptation, to feel compassion for less fortunate persons, and to reevaluate their lives in spiritual terms.

Shahadah* An Arabic word meaning “witnessing” Shadadah refers to the declaration of faith (la-ilaha-illa-Lah Muhammadur-Rasul-Allah”)_ which all Muslims take as their creed – namely, that there is no deity but God and that Muhammad is the Messenger of God. The Shahadah constitutes the first of the “five pillars of Islam.

Shahid “witness” or martyr A shahid is a martyr whose death is a jihad bears witness to his faith and who is assured a place in paradise on the Day of Judgment.

Sharia “the way”, the Islamic legal code as stipulated in the Qur’an and Hadith.
Shari’ah* “the path”, this term refers to guidance from God to be used by Muslims to regulate their societal and personal affairs. The Shari’ah is based upon the Qur’an and the Sunnah of Muhammad, and is interpreted by scholars in deliberating and deciding upon questions and issues of a legal nature.

Sharif “noble” The term sharif refers to the descendants of the Prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima; the Hashemites are regarded as a Sharifian family.

Shaytans Satans (a species of Jinn)

Sheikh/Shaykh* Local ruler, Sheikh is a title of respect given to a religious leader or elderly authority; it is also used to refer to the head of state in smaller Gulf States.

Shia/Shi’ah*/Shi’ite/Shi’ism “party” or “sect” specifically referring to the “party of Ali”; a Muslim who follows Ali (the cousin and fourth successor of Muhammad), who was deposed as leader of Muhammad’s followers. Shiism is the minority branch in Islam. Also known as “partisans of Ali”, Muhammad’s son-in-law, because they attribute a special religious status to him. *A branch of Islam comprising abou 10% of te total Muslim population.

Shirk Polytheism
Shirk* “association”, this term is commonly used to mean association of something other than God with God. The Sin of association, a sin that Allah does not forgive, according to the Qur’an. Thus, paganism, or even atheism, are viewed as expressions of shirk.

Shuru Consultation, the duty of a leader to seek the consultation of religious experts or the people.

Soh-han Allah “Glory be to God” especially used by Sufis.

Sufi* One who endeavors to achieve direct inward knowledge of God through adherence to various spiritual doctrines and methods. These include repeatedly invoking the Divine Names and reciting other religious expressions, living an austere lifestyle, and participating in various spiritual gatherings usually formed around a spiritual master with the title shaykh. Historical, Sufis have been grouped into organizations known as tariqahs.
Sufism Islamic mysticism (dhikrs).

Sultan “ruler” The title Sultan was used by heads of state in the Ottoman Empire and is currently used by Oman’s head of state. Ibn Saud briefly used the title when he was ruler of the Najd, before his conquest of the hijaz.

Sunnah* Habit, practice, customary procedure, action, norm, or usage sanctioned by tradition. Sunnah refers to Prophet Muhammad’s sayings, practices, and habits. The Hadith of the Prophet constitute a written record of his Sunnah.

Sunna/Sunni “path”, following the example of Muhammad set out in the Quran and Hadith, refers to the majority Muslim denomination. One who follows the traditional or orthodox practice of Islam.

Sunni* A term designating those Muslims who recognize the first four successors of Prophet Muhammad as the “Rightly-Guided” caliphs, and who attribute no special religious or political function to the descendants (Shia’s) of the Prophet’s son-in-law Ali ibn Abi Talib. Sunnis hold that any pious, just, and qualified Muslim may be elected Caliph. Sunnis comprise the majority of Muslims, numbering about 90% of the total.

Sura Chapter of the Qur’an.
Surah* A distinct chapter of the Qur’an, designated by a title. An individual verse within a surah is called an ayah. The Qur’an is comprised of 114 surahs of varying lengths.


T
Tafsir* Any kind of explanation, but especially a commentary on the Qur’an. Translations of the Qur’an from Arabic into other languages are considered tafsirs of the Qur’an, since only the original Arabic text actually constitutes the content of the Qur’an.

Talbiyah* The name for the set of phrases attributed to Prophet Abraham and uttered by Muslims in emulation of him during the annual Hajj.

Taliban “students” An Iranian militia, which calls itself Islamic, that has imposed a strict fundamentalist regime upon the country of Afghanistan and denied the rights of Afghan women.

Taqwa Mindfulness (from the root word “to shield oneself) vigilance.

Taslim* Name for the greeting of Muslims, “As-Salaam Alaykum”, meaning “Peace be unto you”. The taslim is also used at the completing of the ritual worship performed five times daily.

Tawbah* Repentence, turning to God to seek forgiveness of sins or other wrong actions. Often a component of the personal prayer known as du’a.

Tawhid Belief in the oneness of God. Tawhid is the central Islamic tenet that Wahhabism has stressed; Wahhabi leaders have stated that those who stray from tawhid are guilty of shirk, or polytheism.

Torah* Arabic name for the holy book revealed to Prophet Moses thousands of years ago. A Scriptural precursor to the Qur’an, just as Moses as a processor of Muhammad in the history of divinely revealed monotheism.


U

Ulama Plural- Religious scholars, leaders, and experts.
Alim Singular
The ulama in Saudi Arabia are the community of recognized Islamic scholars, including the grand mufti, judges, imams of masjids, and teachers in religious universities and schools.

Ummah Community, specifically the community of Muslims.

Umrah* Lesser pilgrimage to Makkah at any time of the year. Unlike the Hajj which takes place during the twelfth month of the Islamic lunar calendar.



W

Wahhabi One who follows Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab’sIslamic creed, who established his Islamic creedin eighteenth century Arabia; Wahhabi movements have militantly reasserted the monotheistic roots of Islam. Wahhabism is the title given by those outside of the movement. Al-Muwahhidun or Abd al-Taubid “The asserters of the divine unity”

Walimah* A traditional dinner feast provided to wedding guests by the groom’s family after a marriage ceremony. Providing a walimah was highly recommended by the Prophet, whether it be a grand or humble affair.

Waqf* Term designating the giving of material property by will or by gift for pious works or for the public good. Properties with waqf status, such as schools or hospitals, remain so perpetually, providing endless benefit to the community and endless Heavenly blessings to the donor.

Wudu Ritual washing or purification.



Y

Yathrib* The former name of Madinah.

Yawm ad-Deen* “Day of Faith”, one of several Arabic terms for Judgement Day.


Z

Zabur* Arabic name for the holy scripture revealed to Prophet David thousands of years ago. Analogous to the Christian Psalms, a precursor to the Qur’an, jas as David was a predecessor of Muhammad.

Zakah* “purification” refers to the almsgiving tax, roughly 2.5% of one’s accumulated wealth, that eligible Muslims pay annually, Zakah is one of the “five pillars” of Islam and is usually collected by local masjids or charitable organizations. The funds are distributed to poor and need persons .

Zakat Offering

Zam Zam* Sacred well discovery by Hajar

Zina Illegal sexual intercourse including fornication, adultery, rape and prostitution.


Sources

(Arabic script has been transliterated to English)

Approaching the Qur’an, the Early Revelations, Introduced and Translated by Michael Sells, White Cloud Press, Ashland, Oregon

Islam, Opposing Viewpoints, Jennifer A. Hurley, Book Editor, Greenhaven Press, Inc., San Diego, CA

Hatred’s Kingdom, How Saudi Arabia Supports the New Global Terrorism, Dore Gold, Regnery Publishing, Inc

The Koran, A Very Short Introduction, Michael Cook, Oxford University Press

*Teaching About Islam & Muslims in the Public School Classroom, A Handbook for Educators, 3rd edition, CAIR ISBN 1-93109-00-8
It is clearly seen that all derogatory terminology to non-Muslims is absent from the CAIR publication. Another example of taqiyya and kitman.

Tags: Arabic, Glossary, Language

Views: 440

Muslim Terrorism Count

Thousands of Deadly Islamic Terror Attacks Since 9/11

Mission Overview

Most Western societies are based on Secular Democracy, which itself is based on the concept that the open marketplace of ideas leads to the optimum government. Whilst that model has been very successful, it has defects. The 4 Freedoms address 4 of the principal vulnerabilities, and gives corrections to them. 

At the moment, one of the main actors exploiting these defects, is Islam, so this site pays particular attention to that threat.

Islam, operating at the micro and macro levels, is unstoppable by individuals, hence: "It takes a nation to protect the nation". There is not enough time to fight all its attacks, nor to read them nor even to record them. So the members of 4F try to curate a representative subset of these events.

We need to capture this information before it is removed.  The site already contains sufficient information to cover most issues, but our members add further updates when possible.

We hope that free nations will wake up to stop the threat, and force the separation of (Islamic) Church and State. This will also allow moderate Muslims to escape from their totalitarian political system.

The 4 Freedoms

These 4 freedoms are designed to close 4 vulnerabilities in Secular Democracy, by making them SP or Self-Protecting (see Hobbes's first law of nature). But Democracy also requires - in addition to the standard divisions of Executive, Legislature & Judiciary - a fourth body, Protector of the Open Society (POS), to monitor all its vulnerabilities (see also Popper). 
1. SP Freedom of Speech
Any speech is allowed - except that advocating the end of these freedoms
2. SP Freedom of Election
Any party is allowed - except one advocating the end of these freedoms
3. SP Freedom of Movement
The government can import new voters - except where that changes the political demographics (i.e. electoral fraud by means of immigration)
4. SP Freedom from Over-spending
People should not be charged for government systems which they reject, and which give them no benefit. For example, the government cannot pass a debt burden across generations (25 years).
An additional Freedom from Religion is be deducible by equal application of law: "Religious and cultural activities are exempt from legal oversight - except where they intrude into the public sphere (Res Publica)"

© 2017   Created by Netcon.   Powered by

Badges  |  Report an Issue  |  Terms of Service