- 31 January 2018
It takes a nation to protect the nation
To start off this forum, I want to collect some quotes from Tariq Ramadan's grandfather - Hassan al Banna, the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood. It would be interesting to see him wriggle, if challenged to reject his grandfather's views.
Al-Banna launched the Society of the Muslim Brotherhood in March of 1928. The brotherhood was extremist and violent from its inception. It's motto is, "God is our purpose, the Prophet our leader, the Qur'an our constitution, Jihad our way and dying for God's cause our supreme objective."
Al-Banna was quite clear that his goal was not solely an anti-colonialist struggle in Egypt nor the refurbishment of Islam, but rather a world revolution that would establish Islam as the dominant religion of the entire world:
"we will not stop at this point [i.e., “freeing Egypt from secularism and modernity”], but will pursue this evil force to its own lands, invade its Western heartland, and struggle to overcome it until all the world shouts by the name of the Prophet and the teachings of Islam spread throughout the world. Only then will Muslims achieve their fundamental goal… and all religion will be exclusively for Allah.(Habeck, Knowing the enemy p. 120)
The key themes of radical Islamism and Jihadism were reiterated in numerous quotes by Al Banna, including:
Central importance of violent Jihad - In traditional Islam, Jihad, which means "struggle" was divided into "Greater Jihad," an inner struggle to achieve sanctity and religious truth and a "Lesser Jihad" - war against enemies of Islam or Jihad Musallah. Al-Banna reversed the priorities. He relegated inner spiritual struggle to Jihad al-asghar, the lesser Jihad, and elevated violent war against enemies of Islam to Jihad al akbar, the great Jihad. His stance on this point is explicit. Al-Banna wrote:
Many Muslims today mistakenly believe that fighting the enemy is jihad asghar (a lesser jihad) and that fighting one's ego is jihad akbar (a greater jihad). The following narration [athar] is quoted as proof: "We have returned from the lesser jihad to embark on the greater jihad." They said: "What is the greater jihad?" He said: "The jihad of the heart, or the jihad against one's ego."
This narration is used by some to lessen the importance of fighting, to discourage any preparation for combat, and to deter any offering of jihad in Allah's way. This narration is not a saheeh (sound) tradition. (source: see Jihad )
The cult of martyrdom - Al-Banna wrote:
My brothers! The ummah that knows how to die a noble and honourable death is granted an exalted life in this world and eternal felicity in the next. Degradation and dishonour are the results of the love of this world and the fear of death. Therefore prepare for jihad and be the lovers of death. Life itself shall come searching after you.
My brother, you should know that one day you will face death and this ominous event can only occur once. If you suffer on this occasion in the way of Allah, it will be to your benefit in this world and your reward in the next. (source: see Jihad )
The supremacy of Islam - "Islam must dominate and is not to be dominated."
by David M. Swindle • Jun 14, 2017 at 5:43 pm
Last week Imam Shaker Elsayed of the Dar al-Hijrah Islamic Center in Falls Church, Virginia, was roundly condemned after a video emerged, courtesy of the Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI), in which he recommends female genital mutilation to avoid "hypersexuality."
Elsayed has since tried to withdraw his comments and apologized, saying "I admit that I should have avoided it. I hereby take it back. And I do apologize to all those who are offended by it."
Elsayed's weak-tea apology has not slowed the loud calls in the Muslim community for the Dar al-Hijrah mosque to fire him. But on Monday, influential Islamist thinker and activist Tariq Ramadan released a 10 minute video on Facebook expressing support for Elsayed staying on. Ramadan stated Muslim leaders who advocate for FGM should be understood as "brothers," part of "our community" and Muslims who disagree should engage them with "internal discussion" and are instructed "not to expose them." Here are some of the highlights from this video.
First Ramadan starts by framing opposition to FGM as a critique coming from "outside the community" and stating that he opposes the calls for firing Elsayed:
"I'm reacting to what I heard and some questions that I had about what happened in Washington with this controversy round a shaykh who was not yet fired – I hope he is not going to be, but he was asked to stop preaching and to stop being active within the community or within the mosque in Washington. And I think that some of the brothers and the sisters even wrote a letter after the controversy around female genital mutilation and excision asking for him to be fired from the mosque and reacting to a video that was posted about what he said in the gathering with Muslim students, men and women. Let me say three things about this because I think this [sic] are critical times and we have to be quite serious about the way we are reacting to controversies and the way we are reacting to some critiques that are coming from outside the community and we have to ask ourselves what we are doing."
Next Ramadan makes his argument that because FGM is defended by some Muslim scholars it qualifies as "part of our tradition" and is therefore worthy of being "promoted":
"My position as a Muslim scholar, my position: it's wrong that we should not promote this because I think that first, it's not in the Koran and second, it's part of the Sunnah that we have, and it's something that is done in African countries, among the Christians and the Muslims and it's not religious. Having said that, I cannot deny the fact that some scholars at the highest levels of their institutional position are supporting the fact that this is possible that you can go for excision, not to go up to the mutilation and infibulation as it is known in African countries, but we have this in our tradition and it's part of the internal discussion that we need to have. So to please people who are attacking Islam by saying 'Oh no, no, no, this is not Islamic. It's illegal,' it's not even faithful to our tradition. We need to have an internal discussion... So, once again, we have to be serious. Any one of the six months of any basic Islamic training, no one can say it's not part of our tradition. It's controversial, it's discussed... you need to take a position, but you then cannot deny the fact that this is something which is part of our tradition."
Then Ramadan shifts to attacking opponents of FGM, decrying them as Islamophobes, attacking MEMRI by name, and criticizing Muslims for wanting "to be perceived as moderate, open-minded":
"You need to ask yourself: who are these people who are using videos, putting them and creating controversy? If you are reacting only when Islamophobes – and the people, MEMRI, we know who they are, we know what they want to do, we know in which way they want to make Islam problems, not only in the United States of America but around the world through the translation, distorting and covering in ways that are very specific, they have a very specific objective, they have a very specific way of dealing with scholars, intellectuals, and Islam. These are Islamophobes, and you react to them by just exposing one of your leaders, a shaykh that has been serving the community for more than 30 years and you ask for him to be fired so quickly just to be on the safe side of the political discussion in the United States of America by saying 'Oh, we have nothing to do with this' while your tradition is there and it's discussed within your tradition and whoever is attacking you at least you have to be cautious with the people who are using this and are putting you in a situation which is yes, problematic, but you have to stand for your rights to have opinions, and at least to have internal discussion and not to react so quickly to these issues... And the last thing that I wanted to say: we disagree. I don't agree with the statement. I don't with one brother, I don't agree with one leader. Can't we take the time to have an internal discussion? To say 'Look we are not going to respond to the controversy, we are not going to fire the people just to be on the safe side and to be perceived as moderate, as open-minded.'"
Ramadan's concluding comments are perhaps the most revealing [emphasis added]:
At least we take the time and we let the people know these are internal issues, these are discussions that we want to have among ourselves and it's not for you to decide when we have to fire somebody or even what are our priorities, because at the end of the day the context is now deciding for us, and people around us are deciding for us what are our priorities, what are the main principle of Islam, and we are not able to come with dignity, with consistency, with confidence and say, 'Ok, this is who we are, we don't have all the same opinions, there are discussions, there are internal discussions, we will take our decision, we will have our Shura, our deliberation with it, and it is for us to decide, not for Islamophobes, not for racists, not for people who have political agendas that are now deciding for us... The way you have to be dignified as a Muslim is to rely on him [points upward] to be consistent with yourself and to respect your brothers, not to expose them, not to expose your sisters, even though you disagree, even though you don't agree. And no double standards, no selective indignation, or selective rejection of some of our brothers because they are exposed outside. And as to our internal business, we talk about it but we let the people, we let the brothers say whatever they want to say.
This insistence on "no double standards" is loaded with irony, as double standards are inherent in Ramadan's worldview. He advocates for one moral standard for his Muslim "brothers" and "sisters" to engage in "internal discussion" and for imams to "say whatever they want to say." But for non-Muslims who oppose the barbaric (and illegal) practice of FGM – that makes one a racist and "Islamophobe."
Tariq Ramadan accused of rape ; http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5004725/Oxford-don-denies-r...
And he falls!
Ramadan today stepped down from his Oxford position:
The Muslim Oxford University academic at the centre of a rape allegation scandal is taking a leave of absence from the University.
The notice of a “mutual agreement” between the University and Professor Tariq Ramadan comes just days after the director of his school stood up for his colleague, remarking the mounting accusations of rape against the Islamic Scholar looked like “Europeans” wanting to “gang up against a Muslim intellectual”.
Oxford University said:
“By mutual agreement, and with immediate effect, Tariq Ramadan, Professor of Contemporary Islamic Studies, has taken a leave of absence from the University of Oxford. Professor Ramadan’s teaching, supervising and examining duties will be reassigned, and he will not be present at the University or College.
“The University has consistently acknowledged the gravity of the allegations against Professor Ramadan, while emphasising the importance of fairness and the principles of justice and due process. An agreed leave of absence implies no presumption or acceptance of guilt and allows Professor Ramadan to address the extremely serious allegations made against him, all of which he categorically denies, while meeting our principal concern – addressing heightened and understandable distress, and putting first the wellbeing of our students and staff.”
The original story continues below
Oxford students have reacted in anger after the director of the university’s Middle East Centre said mounting accusations of rape against Islamic Scholar Tariq Ramadan looks like “Europeans” wanting to “gang up against a Muslim intellectual”.
Professor Eugene Rogan made the comments at a meeting last week which was called to address concerns over the faculty’s decision to allow the Islamic professor to go on both tutoring and supervising students in Oxford while he is being investigated by French police.
Ramadan, whose grandfather founded the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, was accused of rape last month by two women in France and is now facing new allegations from Switzerland including sexual misconduct against minors.
A controversial figure in France, where he is seen as a ‘soft’ Islamist, the professor strongly denies the claims, which he has described as a “campaign of lies”, and said he is suing alleged victims for libel.
Breitbart London @BreitbartLondon
Charlie Hebdo Gets Fresh Death Threats over Tariq Ramadan Cartoon http://www.breitbart.com/london/2017/11/07/charlie-hebdo-death-thre... …
11:00 AM - Nov 7, 2017
Charlie Hebdo Gets Fresh Death Threats Over Tariq Ramadan Cartoon
French police are investigating death threats made against satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo over a cartoon of Islamist scholar Tariq Ramadan.
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At the faculty meeting, Professor Rogan told students: “It’s not just about sexual violence. For some students, it’s just another way for Europeans to gang up against a prominent Muslim intellectual.”
“We must protect Muslim students who believe and trust in him, and protect that trust,” he added.
Students were also urged not to speak to the media about the situation regarding Ramadan at Oxford, where the professor has taught a seminar, and reportedly been spotted “laughing” with faculty members since the first allegation surfaced two weeks ago.
“We can’t tell you what you should say,” Professor Rogan said at the meeting. “But I encourage everyone to use their moral judgement about how they voice their concerns – not to victimise the women who’ve made the allegations or the men who’ve been accused of things they’ve not yet had the chance to defend themselves against.”
Several students expressed concern over the faculty’s decision to let Ramadan continue teaching, according to the Cherwell, reporting claims that immediately following the first allegation, the Islamic professor was seen “walking and laughing in the hall as if nothing had happened”.
Breitbart London @BreitbartLondon
A thirteenth-century Oxford College founded under the guidance of an archbishop needs to be a "secular space" http://www.breitbart.com/london/2017/10/09/oxford-college-bans-chri... …
7:28 PM - Oct 9, 2017
Oxford College Bans Christian Group to Make Freshers' Fair a 'Secular Space' - Breitbart
Senior members of Balliol College's student body committee banned a Christian group from attending the Oxford college's freshers' fair.
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A postgraduate student, who didn’t want to be named, told The Telegraph that he feels Professor Rogan’s comments “encourage a culture of diminished responsibility among ethnic minority groups”.
“My perspective is that there are a number of very frustrated students, because it feels like the university has placed its own interests above their welfare.
“It would be bad in most circumstances, but the fact that there’s a threat to student welfare is very concerning,” the student said.
Another student at the Oxford Middle East Centre added: “There should have been a more open and frank discussion with female students about how to make them feel safer. Women won’t come forward here and say how they feel.”
An online petition calling for Oxford University to suspend Ramadan from his teaching post has so far reached almost 1,500 signatures.
Hugh Fitzgerald: The Undoing of Tariq Ramadan, Islam’s Privileged Paladin
In defense of his brother Tariq, Hani Ramadan cites Islamic law: Rape needs 4 male witnesses
FORCED TO “TAKE LEAVE OF ABSENCE”: Four more women accuse Oxford professor/rapist and leftwing diety Tariq Ramadan of sexual assaults
Prominent Muslim academic Tariq Ramadan is being questioned by French police investigating allegations of rape and sexual assault against him.
He was taken into custody in Paris over claims made by two women last year.
Mr Ramadan, 55, denies wrongdoing and is suing one of his accusers, Henda Ayari, a former radical Islamist who now heads a secular feminist group.
Mr Ramadan, a Swiss national, teaches Islamic studies at Oxford University, but took leave of absence in November.
How did the allegations emerge?
In a book published in 2016, Ms Ayari wrote about being raped in a Paris hotel four years earlier, but the book did not name the attacker.
In October 2017, she said the sexual assault scandal surrounding Hollywood mogul Harvey Weinstein had emboldened her to accuse Mr Ramadan explicitly.
"He literally pounced on me like a wild animal," Ms Ayari told French TV.
Another woman, a convert to Islam who has remained anonymous, later accused him of raping her in 2009.
Four Swiss women have also accused the scholar of making sexual advances while they were students in Geneva. He says all the allegations are part of a "campaign of slander" by enemies.
A controversial and influential figure among Muslim scholars, he is the grandson of Hassan al-Banna, the Egyptian imam who founded the Muslim Brotherhood in the 1920s.
Tariq Ramadan challenges Muslim fundamentalists and encourages dialogue between religions, but some critics accuse him of promoting political Islam.
Since 2009 he has been professor of contemporary Islamic studies at St Antony's College, Oxford.
He has also sat on a UK Foreign Office advisory group on freedom of religion.
more on this good news
Prominent Islamic scholar Tariq Ramadan is held in France on rape allegations
The high-profile Muslim academic Tariq Ramadan has been taken into custody by French police investigating allegations of rape and sexual assault.
Ramadan, a Swiss national who spends a significant amount of time in France, was being questioned by detectives in Paris on Wednesday evening. A preliminary inquiry has been opened after two women filed official complaints last year claiming he violently attacked them. He is also accused of making death threats against one of his alleged victims.
Ramadan, 55, a professor of contemporary Islamic studies at Oxford University since 2009, has strenuously denied the allegations and filed a counter complaint for slander against one of his accusers, the writer Henda Ayari.
From the archives: Islamic scholar Tariq Ramadan defends his views »
The French-born Ayari claims Ramadan raped, harassed, intimidated and sexually assaulted her in a Paris hotel in 2012. The writer, a former Salafi Muslim turned secular feminist, originally detailed the alleged attack in her book, "I Chose to Be Free," published in France in November 2016, but gave her attacker a false name. After the Harvey Weinstein scandal and #MeToo campaign, Ayari named the attacker as Ramadan and made a formal police complaint.
On her Facebook page, Ayari wrote Monday that she had complained to police to "demand justice for the aggression of which I was a victim, as have other women who don't dare report it to the police because they are afraid."
On the French TV channel BFMTV in October, Ayari, 41, described her ordeal. [Link in French.] "I thought I was intelligent. I thought I could protect myself, but I couldn't that evening. He said it was what I wanted. He insulted me and said women like me deserve this.… He said several times that the fact I no longer wear the veil meant I deserved what I suffered. I had provoked his desire and it was my fault…. I was ashamed, I didn't want anyone to know," she said.
A second woman, a 42-year-old Muslim convert whose name has not been released, claimed that Ramadan raped her in a hotel in the southern French city of Lyon in 2009. She has also reported Ramadan to police. Four Swiss women have accused the Islamic scholar of making inappropriate sexual advances at them while they were teenage students in Geneva.
Ramadan, a renowned Islamic theologian and the grandson of Hassan Banna, founder of the Muslim Brotherhood movement in Egypt in the 1920s, is popular in conservative Muslim circles. Israel considers him one of the most important voices for the Brotherhood in the West.
On his Facebook page on Oct. 28, he described the allegations as a "campaign of lies" carried out by his "longtime enemies."
"It is sad to see our opponents reduced to supporting deception…. The law must now speak, my lawyer is in charge of this file. We expect a long and bitter fight. I am serene and determined."
He has been an advisor on Islam to the British government and was a member of a British Foreign Office advisory group on freedom of religion. After the attacks on London's public transport system on July 7, 2005, Ramadan was named by Prime Minister Tony Blair to work on a special task force to tackle religious extremism.
After the rape and assault accusations were made in October, he took leave from his post as a senior research fellow at Oxford.
French police can hold Ramadan for questioning for 48 hours.
Mona Eltahawy, the author of "Headscarves and Hymens: Why the Middle East Needs a Sexual Revolution," said reports of the case "served as a reminder that we Muslim women are caught between a rock and a hard place — a trap presenting near-impossible obstacles for exposing sexual violence."
"The rock is an Islamophobic right wing in other cultures that is all too eager to demonize Muslim men," she wrote in an op-ed in the New York Times. "The hard place is a community within our own faith that is all too eager to defend Muslim men against all accusations. Mr. Ramadan's defenders have dismissed the complaints against him as a 'Zionist conspiracy' and an Islamophobic attempt to destroy a Muslim scholar."
"Too often, when Muslim women speak out, some in our 'community' accuse us of 'making our men look bad' and of giving ammunition to right-wing Islamophobes. But they get it wrong. It is the harassers and assaulters who make us 'look bad,' not the women who have every right to expose crimes against them."
more on this guy. translated from the French.
The hidden face of Tarik Ramadan
Threats, insults, defamation. All Muslims who do not pledge allegiance to Hassan al-Banna's grandson, Tariq Ramadan, start his wrath. A chronicle of Ian Hamel
by The writing of Mondafrique - November 10, 2017
In September 1994, Tariq Ramadan, a French teacher at a college in Geneva, created the Muslims, Muslims of Switzerland (MMS) association and bombed the president, regardless of the fact that most Muslims in Switzerland did not come from North Africa but from Turkey, Bosnia, Kosovo, and live in German-speaking Switzerland. As early as December 16, 1994, Tariq Ramadan organized the first congress of the MMS. Muslims do not jostle to answer his call. Never mind, he makes come by whole bus of the Hexagon of the militants of the union of the Islamic organizations of France (UOIF), close to the Muslim Brothers, in particular Malika Dif and Hassan Iquioussen.
But a journalist from the Swiss magazine L'Hebdo reveals the pot with the roses, titling "The Moslems of Switzerland were ... French". She says that inside the congress, non-Muslims and journalists would have been called "insects". Tariq Ramadan does not get up. He decides to abandon Switzerland for France.
False teacher in Friborg
Even today, the grandson of Hassan Al-Banna, the founder of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, is struggling to be heard on the shores of Lake Geneva. The Islamic Center of Geneva, created in January 1961 by Saïd Ramadan, the son-in-law of Hassan Al-Banna, now led by his son Hani Ramadan, Tariq's brother, is considered by many Muslims as an obscurantist sect. It is probably the only mosque in Europe belonging exclusively to one family, Ramadan. As for Tariq Ramadan, he did not leave only good memories in Switzerland. As a teacher, he often dried his class, criticized his colleagues. In his book The Muslims in Secularity, published in 1994, he wrote on page 175 that biology classes,
And above all, he addresses chronicles in newspapers, especially in "The World", to claim "a moratorium on the application of sharia". He introduces himself as "Professor of Philosophy and Islamology at the University of Friborg". But he is neither a teacher nor even an assistant. Tariq Ramadan is content to give a weekly volunteer lecture on Islam to Friborg students every week. Nevertheless, it is this skewed business card that allows him to be passed abroad for an academic. "In spite of a rather light intellectual baggage, Ramadan now boasts of teaching at Oxford. He simply forgets to mention that his university chair is funded entirely by Qatar, "said Alain Chouet, former head of the security intelligence service at the DGSE. For memory,
Watchers on the Web
Charles Genequand, specialist in the Arab world at the University of Geneva, has never been convinced by the seriousness of Tariq Ramadan. He refused her dissertation on Islamic reformism and Hassan Al-Banna. The reasons ? Tariq Ramadan was trying to get his grandfather to a Muslim Gandhi. "Not only did he refuse to make corrections to his thesis, but he harassed the members of the jury to get it as soon as possible," recalls Charles Genequand.
Testimony confirmed by Ali Merad, professor emeritus at the Sorbonne Nouvelle Paris III University and author of three "Que sais-je?" on Islam. Tariq Ramadan went so far as to threaten him with a university complaint if he did not get his doctorate. "I have been a PhD supervisor for nearly forty years in France, Belgium and Switzerland. I have never seen a student behave this way, "said Ali Merad (1). At that time, Tariq Ramadan himself picked up his phone to insult and threaten anyone who did not appreciate his talent.
Today, he can count on dozens of watchers on the Web. "It is enough that I write three lines on the Internet a little critical vis-à-vis Tariq Ramadan so that I receive immediately fifty messages more than unpleasant from his henchmen," denounces Ahmed Benani, political scientist and anthropologist to the University of Lausanne, who died a year ago. "Tariq Ramadan is only a television icon. Where are his academic works? No researcher, be it Olivier Roy, Gilles Kepel, Rachid Benzine, the late Mohammed Arkoun or Abdelwahab Meddeb has ever taken it seriously, "said Ahmed Benani, who has known in Geneva Saïd Ramadan, the father of Hani and Tariq Ramadan, disappeared in 1995.
Muslims deprived of speech
Same story from Mohamed-Chérif Ferjani, Islamologist and professor at Lyon-2 University. " Insults ? I do not even take the time to read them. On the other hand, Tariq Ramadan does not dare to confront me directly. I denounced his multiple lies in my book The Politics and the Religious in the Islamic Field (2). To embellish the image of Hassan Al-Banna, Tariq Ramadan systematically erases the military and violent character of the Muslim Brotherhood, translating for example "jundî", not by "soldier", but by "militant", and "katîba" by "circle" instead of "brigade" or "phalanx". More seriously, he forgets to recall that Hassan Al-Banna preached the caliphate "as the only possible form of Islamic State." "A lot of the attacks on the Internet are driven by French university professors.
"Of course, Tariq Ramadan has a good game to pretend that there is nothing. But I find that he has never distanced himself from the insults and threats uttered by his acolytes. The latter particularly attack intellectuals of Muslim origin. The goal is to create a detestable climate and do everything possible to prevent Muslims, who do not share the ideas of Ramadan, to express themselves, "says Haoues Seniguer, senior lecturer in political science at Sciences Po Lyon. "This is all the more unpleasant as the writings of this contemptuous character are terribly lacking in scientific depth. A significant element: the revealing gaps in the Islamic culture where references to thinkers such as Rachid Benzine, Nasr Hâmid Abu Zayd, or Mohamed Arkoun are systematically absent,
The mouth twisted by hatred
Same story from Dominique Avon, history associate, graduate of Arabic, professor at the University of Maine, specialist of religions: "In Muhammad, life of the prophet, Tariq Ramadan sticks to a speech of a traditionist by presenting Adam as the first prophet! Adam is a mythical figure, no other academic a little serious would dare to write this kind of thing, "he says, adding that" whoever presents himself as an Islamologist never uses any academic source to speak of the first centuries of the Muslim religion ". His only references are the Qur'an, the Hadiths (acts and words of the Prophet) not subject to historical criticism, and some carefully selected medieval commentators.
Faced with opponents, Tariq Ramadan quickly gives up his honey smile, to eructe, mouth twisted by hatred. Dr. Bakary Sambe, teacher-researcher at the Center for the Study of Religions, UFR of Civilizations, Arts and Communication, at Gaston Berge University, in Saint-Louis, Senegal, made the sad experience. "While in France, he boasts of being fully European. In Africa, he refers to the West as the origin of all the evils of Muslims. On the French intervention in Mali, he adopts exactly the same position as the Muslim Brotherhood, the Tunisian Rachid Ghannouchi and the Egyptian Mohamed Morsi ", recalls Bakary Sambe. But for having opposed Tariq Ramadan, the Senegalese academic was presented as "anti-Arab" and even "pro-Israeli", in writings addressed to Muslim students, to the United States. "I had to write an article in English to counter all the lies that Tariq Ramadan was saying to me," the African researcher denounces.
Ian Hamel, "The truth about Tariq Ramadan. His family, his networks, his strategy ", Editions Favre, 2007.
Mohamed-Cherif Ferjani," The political and the religious in the Islamic field ", Fayard, 2005.